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Nikolaus Federmann also engaged in forced exchange with the nations he wished to conquer. They governed the Venezuelan Province from to , and Federmann was their agent.

There has been scant attention paid to this episode of German colonization in the Americas, and this article attempts to fill this void. By exerting violence and demanding obedi- ence through the gift exchange, Federmann became an experienced strategist in his conquest tours through the Terra Firme. Seen in this light, his linguistic manipulations and thwarted attempts at diplomacy through gift-giving constitute astute psychological maneuvers impor- tant to understanding the conquest of the Americas.

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I also address how and when reciprocity fails and succeeds, and the importance of time in the gift exchange. The Colonial Enterprise of the Welsers and the Indian History In the sixteenth century, the Welser and the Fugger families formed part of the powerful political and merchant circles of the Southern German lands; they were the most well-known of patrician families in Augsburg and their businesses were the most productive. The emperor used his connections with these bank- ing families throughout most of his rule, securing loans to finance his many wars Tracy This successful smear campaign represented the Germans as barbaric heretics.

The Welsers, aware of both the risk M LN of a short period of governance and the effects of an anti-German atmosphere within Spain and its colonies, knew they had little time. They had to yield quick returns on their initial investment of gov- ernance and conduct their business before the Catholic Spaniards caved in to anti-Lutheranism. Hence, Governor Ambrosius Ehinger known as Alfinger and Federmann set out to discover a route to Asia through the Pacific Ocean which would give them an advantage over the Portuguese for the Asian-European spice trade, and which would bypass the Ottoman-controlled Mediterranean.

The Welsers procured as much gold as they could, and they would enslave many natives, whom they also sold into the Caribbean slave market. The Welsers appointed Nikolaus Federmann of Ulm, in the south- ern Swabian region of the German lands, to assist in conquering and sacking the Venezuelan Province when he was twenty-four years old.

On his first tour in Venezuela, he served as the General Captain for the first Welser governor, Alfinger. Federmann, in turn, also accused the Welsers of stealing from the Spanish royal coffers. The Crown released him from prison before he died in Spain in , but the final ruling of the trial had not yet been delivered.

Most historical sources represented Federmann as a possibly Lutheran conqueror who made up his own rules. Both Christine Johnson and Elvira Vilches New World Gold; write about the importance of foreign capital for the Emperor—in fact Carande-Thobar wrote a three-volume history on the theme German and Venezuelan scholars have investigated the history of the Welsers in Venezuela, with many historical studies appearing recently.

Working with Governor Alfinger and their conquerors, he also subdued many Indian nations with violence. Federmann organizes the Indianische Historia in chronological order.

He then returns to Coro, journeys to Spain, and concludes the narrative in Augsburg. The Welsers had to bring fifty German miners, found two pueblos with residents, and build three forts. They also secured a permit that would allow them to import 4, African slaves to the Americas. In comparison with other colonial ventures, the Welsers would not have to pay the royal fifth destined to the Crown for the first three years.

While the Spaniards might have wanted to colonize the province, many have argued that the Welsers just wanted swift returns on their investment. M LN of his America travel series. Federmanns und H. The Indianische Historia became popular again as the German Empire sought to rapidly colonize the supposedly unclaimed territories left in the South Pacific and Africa.

The nineteenth-century re-edition of the Indianische Historia signaled newfound interest in colonization efforts which were being carried out in Africa and the South Pacific by the German Empire. Federmann often emphasizes the importance of the ritual of giv- ing and receiving gifts. Anthropologists particularly object. Details from the Welser Genealogical Table, Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Special Collections.

Printed with permission. Quam olim Dm.

The settlement of Coro appears on the northwest coast. Those who exchange presents with one another Remain friends the longest If things turn out successfully.

Mauss addresses the economy of the gift exchange and its attending sociological practices in his anthropological research on the North American Haidda and Tinglit peoples. Given the political implications for the Welser agents, whom the Spanish colons suspected of being closeted-Lutherans, Federmann wanted to fashion himself as a conqueror on equal footing with the Spanish. The concept thus encompasses a system for the exchange of gifts. Mauss describes the gift economy in his analysis of Polynesian society, showing that clans and parties exchange gifts to guarantee peaceful social relationships between two Polynesian societies, writ- ing that groups have no option but to ask for hospitality, to receive presents, to enter into trading, to contract alliances, through wives or blood kinship [.

The obligation to give is no less important; a study of it might enable us to understand how people have become exchangers of goods and services. We can only point out a few facts.

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To refuse to give, to fail to invite, just as to refuse to accept, is tantamount to declaring war; it is to reject the bond of alliance and com- monality. Federmann exploited indigenous gift-giving practices, both to find indigenous allies and to seek hospitality Arellano Federmann never truly gives free gifts; he engages in gift exchange to enforce a temporal contract with the recipient, that is, a contract that needed to be paid back after a certain amount of time.

Feder- mann used the giving and receiving ritual to exploit Amerindians through unequal exchanges. Some of his trades obtained food for himself and his conquistadors or information about the topography of land he sought to travel in, but a larger number involved taking gold, gems, and pearls in exchange for glass beads.

Federmann took advantage of the rules of gift-giving that existed among indigenous groups; he relied on linguistic manipulations through words to sub- jugate Amerindians and to extract slave labor as well as treasure. For example, a typical trade occurs when Federmann meets the Ayamane nation.

Federmann complains when he does not acquire valuable gifts. They do not know anything about the sea and do not travel there.


They are a people that are encircled by enemy nations and that do not travel far and do not cross over the borders of other nations. The passage is typical in that Federmann always describes how he calculates the value of every nation he encounters, and the Ayamanes hold little of worth.

However, he would force Ayamane interpreters scared of their Cayone enemies to make his arrival in the Cayone land more fruitful—this is how they become useful to Federmann.

Or else, it would have been the same to us if they were enemies, then we would not have feared their conspiracies against us so much. Even though the Cayones and Ayamanes are enemies, the Ayamanes serve as go-betweens between Federmann and the Cayone nation.

That is why, even though the hostility between the Cayones and Ayamanes would have been beneficial to Federmann if either group joined Federmann in attacking other nations , he tries to get both of them to trust him. Accordingly, he takes up arms when the Guaycaries deny him gifts. As part of the encomienda system, the Spanish or in this case, the Germans working for the Spanish crown were entrusted to teach the natives Catholic doctrine, and they were also responsible for giving them food, shelter, and clothes; in exchange for this protection indios ecomendados had to work and pay tribute to their encomenderos.

The tem- poral aspect of the gift remains integral to the conquistador and the Nations with whom he negotiates. The time inscribed within the gift allows both parties to meet under the pretense of friendship, form alliances, and download time before one party decides to wage war on the other.

When he encounters the Xidehara nation, Federmann refers to a gift paid back in time. Here, it is the Xideharas who download time from Federmann through gift giving. He declares war against them later, but they use the time to prepare for battle; as such, the download of time prevents immediate violence if not subjugation.

Time used as collateral fails Federmann in the gift exchange with the Cayone Nation. Thus, the Cayones bought time to leave with their gifts. While Feder- mann took their gifts as an investment or deposit, they turn out to be a delaying tactic. Federmann raids the village where the Cayones hide, killing many and taking forty-three prisoners including the Cacique.

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Federmann believed he and the Cacique had enacted a pact of alliance. He does so because he expects Federmann will treat them violently. As Federmann continues his conquest tour through Venezuela, he sends indigenous prisoners ahead with gifts to meet other nations. Naturally, these chained messengers tell the indigenous recipients of the message that Federmann will probably enslave them, but the ongoing abandonment of indigenous villages that follows repeatedly surprises Federmann.

On what conditions does it take place? They are a rich people that work with gold so that they can trade and sell it. Their home in a fertile valley offers many riches. He attributes this warm welcome to their faith and trust, and puts them above other peoples he meets because of this lack of hostility and plentitude of valuable gifts.

Ninguna persona puede ser sometida a penas, torturas o tratos crueles, inhumanos o degradantes. Se garantiza el secreto e inviolabilidad de las comunicaciones privadas en todas sus formas. Toda persona tiene derecho a ser notificada de los cargos por los cuales se le investiga; de acceder a las pruebas y de disponer del tiempo y de los medios adecuados para ejercer su defensa.

Día de la Bandera (Venezuela)

Toda persona se presume inocente mientras no se pruebe lo contrario. Toda persona tiene derecho a un nombre propio, al apellido del padre y al de la madre, y a conocer la identidad de los mismos.

Quien haga uso de este derecho asume plena responsabilidad por todo lo expresado. No se permite el anonimato, ni la propaganda de guerra, ni los mensajes discriminatorios, ni los que promuevan la intolerancia religiosa. El sufragio es un derecho. La maternidad y la paternidad son protegidas integralmente, sea cual fuere el estado civil de la madre o del padre. Toda persona tiene derecho al trabajo y el deber de trabajar.

Es fin del Estado fomentar el empleo. Las amas de casa tienen derecho a la seguridad social de conformidad con la ley. En las relaciones laborales prevalece la realidad sobre las formas o apariencias. Los derechos laborales son irrenunciables.

Los trabajadores y trabajadoras tienen derecho al descanso semanal y vacaciones remunerados en las mismas condiciones que las jornadas efectivamente laboradas. La impartida en las instituciones del Estado es gratuita hasta el pregrado universitario.Native caciques leaders such as Guaicaipuro c.

Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license. Halls, Routledge, Maduro was elected president in a shortened election in following Chavez's death.

Supreme Court president Luisa Estela Morales said in December that Venezuela had moved away from "a rigid division of powers" toward a system characterized by "intense coordination" between the branches of government. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: a the reason for the change in author list and b written confirmation e-mail, letter from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.

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